Welcome to Talking Terpenes: Behind the Blends , the educational series that explores the biochemistry of the aromatic chemical compounds produced by cannabis, hemp, and 20,000 other species in the plant kingdom called terpenes .
The evolutionary function of terpenes—and their multilayered aromas — is the propagation of the plant species that produce them. This is accomplished by repelling pests and predators while simultaneously attracting pollinators (a group comprised of both humans and insects). Terpenes also deliver potential support for health benefits to humans via their interaction with the endocannabinoid system, or ECS.
The Talking Terpenes series teaches readers the surprisingly wide range of possible wellness advantages offered by these efficacious chemical compounds. Followers learn how terpene blends and terpene flavors deliver lifestyle and wellness support in addition to their complex, bold fragrances. Humans have been adding terpenes and terpene flavors to their beverages, foods, topical lotions, and perfumes for thousands of years.
This edition of Talking Terpenes investigates the organic Extract Consultants solvent-free Pineapple Kush Terpene Flavor .
Terpenes featured in the Pineapple Kush Terpene Profile include:
These compounds have been derived from individually isolated botanical sources and, collectively, along with the ester ethyl caproate, provide potent pineapple flavor and aroma profiles.
Pineapple Kush is derived from the cross breeding of two popular cultivars (strains) of cannabis: Master Kush and OG Pineapple. Together, the terpenes and esters of the Pineapple Kush Terpene Flavor produce an aroma that is dominated by buttery pineapple and known for its uniquely pronounced strength.
D-Limonene , one of two limonene isomers that includes l-limonene , delivers a fresh, fruity aroma that is characterized by notes of citrus that manifest as lemon and lime. This common terpene is produced by cannabis, grapefruit, lemon, lime, mandarin, and orange and is the second most common in nature.
D Limonene delivers a range of potential wellness benefits, including support for reductions in anxiety and improvements in conditions based in anxiety, including depression. It also conveys antibacterial properties, may be an effective ingredient in treating gastric reflux and heartburn, and has been found to act as an antifungal agent.
Interestingly, d-limonene may improve the absorption of other terpenes when applied topically as a cream or lotion or in transdermal patches. It is employed by the food industry as a flavoring agent and also commonly added to cosmetics to provide an attractive citrus-like aroma.
Visit these articles in this series to learn more about the terpene d-limonene:
Notable Strains that Feature D-Limonene
Fenchol, also called 2-fenchanol and fenchyl alcohol, is a minor terpene and an isomer of borneol that is produced by aster flowers, basil, cannabis, eucalyptus leaves, nutmeg, and wild celery (among other plant species).
Within the cannabis genome, fenchol, a somewhat rare terpene, delivers an earthy, piney aroma that may include undertones of lemon and camphor. Fenchol is a primary aroma element of basil and is principally responsible for the herb’s distinctive aroma.
Fenchol is a monoterpene, meaning that it is considerably smaller and less complex than other types of terpenes. The potential medicinal efficacy of this molecule includes support for pain reduction, antibacterial and antimicrobial effects, and antioxidant properties.
Medicinal Research on Fenchol
A 2011 study on fenchol, entitled “Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus” that was published in the Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, explored the antioxidant and other properties of the essential oil produced by eucalyptus.
Analysis of the eucalyptus oil revealed the presence of 28 organic chemical compounds, including terpenes such as alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, fenchol, and limonene. The antioxidant characteristics of the essential oil were found to result from only three of the molecules: Carvacrol, fenchol, and terpineol.The study also reported the antifungal properties of fenchol. “Components corresponding [to antifungal activity] were determined as β-fenchol and α-eudesmol,” wrote the researchers.
Notable Strains that Feature Fenchol
Geraniol is one of the most popular terpenes due to its attractive rose-like scent. First isolated in 1871, it is one of three molecular components responsible for the scent of roses. Outside of cannabis, geraniol is produced by geranium (revealed by their common name root), lemon, and roses.
According to a 2018 study on geraniol , the terpene is also made by basil, blueberry, cardamom, carrots, cilantro, ginger, grapes, and oranges. Geraniol is used to create a variety of flavors (via combination with other terpenes, esters, and ketones), including grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange, peach, pineapple, raspberry, red apple, watermelon, and several others.
Geraniol is also employed as a natural pest/insect control agent and sometimes preferred due to its relatively low toxicity. In addition, geraniol has been shown to be a “ penetration enhancer for transdermal drug delivery.” This provides additional support for a potential synergistic role played by terpenes and cannabinoids in an “entourage effect.”
Formulations that include geraniol and d-limonene (see above) may be especially adept at delivering enhanced bioavailability due to their absorption and penetration qualities.
Medicinal Research on Geraniol
A variety of research studies have investigated geraniol and its potential health implications, including its pronounced efficacy in support of the treatment of various cancers. A 2010 study on geraniol, entitled “Geraniol—A Review of a Commercially Important Fragrance Material” that was published in the South African Journal of Botany, investigated the commercial and industrial role of this terpene.
Reported the study, “[Geraniol] is one of the most important molecules in the flavor and fragrance industries and is a common ingredient in consumer products produced by these industries.” The researchers cited how geraniol may provide support in the treatment of cancer. “Geraniol has been suggested to represent a new class of chemoprevention agents for cancer,” they wrote.
The study revealed other potential biological activities of geraniol, including “antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects.” Its anti-inflammatory efficacy is especially noteworthy due to the fact that inflammation is a root problem associated with hundreds of disease states, including cancer, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and chronic pain.
“Geraniol has antiproliferative effects on hepatoma and melanoma cell growth,” reported the scientists. “ The antiproliferative effects of geraniol on human colon cancer cells were related to its ability to reduce DNA synthesis,” they concluded.
A 2004 study on geraniol, entitled “Geraniol and β-ionone Inhibit Proliferation, Cell Cycle Progression in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells” that was published in the journal Biochemical Pharmacology, also explored the ability of geraniol to effectively support treatment of diseases such as cancer. The researchers concluded that geraniol had an anti-proliferative effect on breast cancer cells, meaning that in some cases it may prevent their growth.
Notable Strains that Feature Geraniol
Humulene, also known as alpha humulene, α-humulene and α-caryophyllene, is an isomer of the terpene beta caryophyllene, (BCP) and produces a similar aroma. Humulene delivers an earthy, hoppy aroma that is layered with notes of wood and spice. The bitter hoppy flavor of many beers results from humulene.
- Chinese ginseng
- Marsh elders
- Vietnamese coriander
The medicinal support benefits of alpha humulene include antibacterial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and appetite suppressing (anorectic) qualities. Because it decreases appetite, humulene may be valuable in products formulated for those with eating disorders, including type 2 diabetes, binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, and obesity. Visit these articles in this series to learn more about the terpene humulene:
Notable Strains that Feature Alpha Humulene
Extract Consultants terpene flavors involve more than just the aromatic terpenes that are the primary subject of this article series. In addition, terpene-based aroma and flavor formulations integrate aromatic ancillaries to terpenes such as aldehydes, esters, and ketones. In the case of the Pineapple Kush Terpene Flavor, a critical ingredient responsible for its enticing pineapple flavor and aroma is the ester ethyl caproate, also known as ethyl hexanoate.
Coined by German chemist Leopold Gmelin in the first half of the 19th century, esters are a class of organic compounds that reacts with water to produce alcohols and acids. In some cases, this category of compounds conveys significant flavor and/or fragrance attributes that are of value to humans.
According to this 2020 study on ethyl caproate, ethyl caproate is a popular fragrance ingredient in perfumes and cosmetics, as well as a key flavor component of sake and other fermented beverages. Isolated, the aroma of ethyl caproate has been described as “sweet, fruity, winy, rum, apple, and banana.” It features a delicate floral undertone accompanied by sweet notes. According to this 1989 study, ethyl caproate is one of several esters that form the distinctive flavor and aroma of pineapple.
The Pineapple Kush Terpene Flavor from Extract Consultants features a distinct and potent pineapple aroma and flavor thanks to inclusion of the ester ethyl caproate and a carefully balanced mix of terpenes that includes d-limonene, fenchol, geraniol, and humulene (among others).
These terpenes have been revealed, via dozens of peer-reviewed research studies, to provide potential therapeutic support for a range of disease states and conditions. These characteristics include anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties.
Together, the terpene profile of the Pineapple Kush Terpene Flavor combine with the ester ethyl caproate to synergistically craft an intensely popular and perfectly balanced buttery pineapple flavor that conveys potential support for a spectrum of conditions.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Curt Robbins is a technical writer, instructional designer, and lecturer who has been developing science-based educational and training content for Fortune 200 enterprise companies for more than 30 years. He is Director of Course Development at Higher Learning LV™ in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Robbins began writing about the biochemistry and science of the various wellness molecules produced by plants such as hemp in 2003. He has since developed more than 600 educational articles about hemp and its health components—including terpenes, cannabinoids, flavonoids, and the human endocannabinoid system.